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Meningitis B Vaccination
Meningococcal disease is a serious infection caused by the bacteria Neisseria meningitides that can cause meningitis and in some cases severe septicaemia. Meningococcal disease is a significant public health problem in some parts of the world.
• Meningococcal infection is transmitted through droplet/aerosol spread of nasal/thriat secretions of infected individuals or asymptomatic carriers.
• Close/prolonged contact is required for transmission – e.g. kissing, sneezing/coughing, living in close quarters (such as a dormitory) or sharing eating and drinking utensils.
• Can be commensal of upper respiratory tract.
PRICE: Adult £95 Child £95
There is a worldwide distribution but the epidemiology of the 6 main serogroups (A, B, C, W-135, X, Y) varies geographically and over time:
The epidemic strains A and W-135 predominate in the meningitis belt of sub-Saharan Africa:
• recently outbreaks have extended out of traditional areas
• annual epidemics occur towards end of dry season
• incidence variable – 10-25 per 100,000 per annum, increasing up to a hundred fold every 5-10 years
• serogroups B and C predominate in industrialised countries – occur as sporadic cases/institutional outbreaks
o incidence 0.2-1 per 100,000 per annum
o globally highest incidence in children under 5 and older teenagers
• Incubation – 2-10 days.
• Illness – rapidly progressive over hours/days.
• Convalescence – 20% may have permanent sequelae
• Risk of severe illness
• Invasive disease may lead to bacteraemia, meningitis or septicaemia.
• Meningococcal sepsis most severe form leading to rash, persistent shock, clotting issues and multiorgan failure.
• Untreated mortality rate 70 – 90%.
• Treated mortality rate ~ 10% in industrialised world.
Signs and symptoms of meningitis
Asymptomatic carriage is possible. Symptoms commonly include one or more of the following:
• Sudden onset of fever.
• Intense headache.
• Neck stiffness.
• Rash – petechial (doesn’t blanch on pressure) – characteristic of invasive meningococcal disease, seen in up to 80% cases.
• Microscopy/Culture of CSF demonstrating causative organisms gold standard of diagnosis in UK.
• Clinical diagnosis in many regions of the world.
This is a medical emergency – intravenous or intramuscular antibiotic therapy should be given as soon as the diagnosis is suspected:
• benzylpenicillin/cefotaxime administered pre-hospital
• I.M. chloramphenicol/ceftriaxone often used as a single dose during epidemics in Africa
• close contacts treated with prophylactic antibiotics (rifampicin/ciprofloxacin).
Advice to Travellers
Vaccination should be considered under the following circumstances and is dependent on the individual risk assessment:
• Travel to region with a current outbreak/ongoing epidemic where close, prolonged contact with local population anticipated particularly in overcrowded areas.
• Travel to a high endemic region for individuals with immunodeficiency including those with no spleen
• Travel to the Hajj and Umrah pilgrimage; Note that a certificate of vaccination is required for such pilgrims.
Meningitis vaccination – what happens?
Different vaccinations are available for different species of meningitis and different schedules also exist so the number of vaccinations required will also vary – please contact our experienced practice nurse at Glasgow Medical Rooms for further advice.
“I have had persistent neck and shoulder discomfort for some time. Regular visits to my local GP did not help. I was recommended to see Dr Sheila O’Neil who gave me a check-up and recommended that I see her physiotherapist colleague, Vicky Graham. I have had three sessions of physiotherapy and have regained full mobility in my neck and shoulders and feel a great deal better. I am very grateful to Dr Sheila and expect, with my husband, to sign up with her as regular patients.”Mrs Johnston
I would like to thank Dr O’Neill very much for her time today: I get the impression that she is a very caring professional, knowledgeable and reassuring, and that she makes explaining conditions crystal clear, which is exactly what is needed for an anxious patient like myself. The staff that I met were all extremely welcoming, well-groomed and helpful too. Add to this the very relaxing and beautifully scented ambience and it was really a truly positive and pleasant visit. Thank you.Linnea Blair
“Dr. Sheila O’Neill and her team quite literally saved my life. I cannot recommend them highly enough. Diagnosis of a serious condition that had been misdiagnosed by three hospitals took less than 2 weeks, including an MRI. Setting aside the professionalism, they are also just extremely nice people. Imagine a GP that truly cares and will be calling the patient after hours to see how they are getting on – that is what I got from Dr. Sheila O’Neill. There are no superlatives that adequately describe the service. Great. Fantastic. Superb.”GMK Group